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2018年下半年英语六级考试仔细阅读(哈尔滨新东方)

2018-12-22 13:32

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  Section C

  Passage2

  Q51-55

  On Jan. 9, 2007, 10 years ago today, Steve Jobs formally announced Apple‘s “revolutionary mobile phone” - a device that combined the functionality of an iPod, phone and Internet communication into a single unit, navigated by touch.

  It was a huge milestone in the development of smartphones, which are now owned by a majority of American adults and are increasingly common across the globe.

  As smartphones have proliferated, so have questions about their impact on how we live and how we work. Often the advantages of convenient, mobile technology are both obvious and taken for granted, leaving more subtle topics for concerned discussion: Are smartphones disturbing children’s sleep? Is an inability to get away from work having a negative impact on health? And what are the implications for privacy?

  But today, on the 10th anniversary of the iPhone, let‘s take a moment to consider a less obvious advantage: the potential for smartphone technology to revolutionize behavioral science. That’s because, for the first time in human history, a large proportion of the species is in continuous contact with technology that can record key features of an individual‘s behavior and environment. To quote a recent article published in Perspectives in Psychological Science: “Psychology has a great deal of data on what people believe they do... but little data on what people actually do.”

  Researchers have already begun to use smartphones in social scientific research, either to query people regularly as they engage in their normal lives or to record activity using the device’s built-in sensors. These studies are confirming, challenging and extending what‘s been found using more traditional approaches, in which people report how they behaved in real life or participate in relatively short and artificial laboratory-based tasks.

  To illustrate the use of smartphone-based data collection, consider a forthcoming study that combined queries embedded in everyday life with sensor data to paint a more accurate picture of how mood is affected by a person’s location. The data for the study came from more than 12,000 members of the general public who downloaded a free Android app to participate in the research. Twice during the day, they were prompted to report their mood and location, with location information additionally collected from the phone‘s location sensors. Using both kinds of location data, the study found that people reported significantly more positive moods in locations that typically involve social interactions (such as a café or friend’s house) than at home, and more positive moods at home than at work.

  Other studies have used sensor data to draw more subtle kinds of inferences. For instance, a study published in 2015 followed 48 students over the course of a 10-week school term. Using a combination of location, activity and audio sensors, the researchers could infer students‘ patterns of class attendance, study time, physical activity and socializing. These variables, in turn, predicted student GPA with surprisingly high accuracy. Another 2015 study used mobile phones to track 40 adult participants over a two-week period. Using patterns of movement and phone usage, the researchers were able to identify behaviors that predicted symptoms of depression.

  These studies are just first steps. As more data are collected and methods for analysis improve, researchers will be in a better position to identify how different experiences, behaviors and environments relate to each other and evolve over time, with the potential to improve people’s productivity and wellbeing in a variety of domains. Beyond revealing population-wide patterns, the right combination of data and analysis can also help individuals identify unique characteristics of their own behavior, including conditions that could indicate the need for some form of intervention - such as an uptick in behaviors that signal a period of depression.

  Smartphone-based data collection comes at an opportune time in the evolution of psychological science. Today, the field is in transition, moving away from a focus on laboratory studies with undergraduate participants towards more complex, real-world situations studied with more diverse groups of people. Smartphones offer new tools for achieving these ambitions, offering rich data about everyday behaviors in a variety of contexts.

  So here‘s another way in which smartphones might transform the way we live and work: by offering insights into human psychology and behavior and, thus, supporting smarter social science.

  51. What does the author say about the negative impact of smartphones?

  A. It has been overshadowed bythepositive impact.

  B. It has more often than not been taken for granted.

  C. It is not so obvious but has caused some concern.

  D. It is subtle but should by no means be overstated.

  52. What is considered a less obvious advantaged of smartphone technology?

  A. It systematically records real human interactions.

  B. It helps people benefit from technological advances.

  C. It brings people into closer contact with each other.

  D. It greatly improves research on human behavior.

  53. What characterizes traditional psychological research?

  A. It is based on huge amounts of carefully collected data.

  B. It relies on lab observations and participants’ reports.

  C) It makes use of the questionnaire method.

  D) It is often expensive and time-consuming.

  54.How will future psychological studies benefit individuals?

  A) By helping them pin down their unusual behaviors.

  B) By helping them maintain a positive state of mind.

  C) By helping them live their lives in a unique way.

  D) By helping them cope with abnormal situations.

  55.What do we learn about current psychological studies?

  A) They are going through a period of painful transition.

  B) They are increasingly focused on real-life situations.

  C) They are conducted in a more rigorous manner.

  D) They are mainly targeted towards undergraduates.

  六级第一套仔细阅读

  51C. It is not so obvious but has caused some concern.

  解析:根据题干negative influence of smartphones定位到第三段leaving more subtle topics for concerned discussion: Are smartphones disturbing children‘s sleep? Is an inability to get away from work having a negative impact on health? And what are the implications for privacy?

  原文说手机带来好处的同时也会留下些许的担忧,也就是消极影响,随即举例,与C对应。

  52 D It greatly improves research on human behavior.

  解析:根据题干a less obvious advantage of smartphone technology定位到第四段第一,二句consider a less obvious advantage: the potential for smartphone technology to revolutionize behavioral science. That’s because, for the first time in human history, a large proportion of the species is in continuous contact with technology that can record key features of an individual‘s behavior and environment.原文说智能手机技术的潜能革新行为科学,可以记录人类行为和环境的关键特点,与D对应。

  53B. It relies on lab observations and participants’ reports.

  解析:根据题干“传统心理研究的特点”定位到第五段结尾These studies are confirming, challenging and extending what‘s been found using more traditional approaches, in which people report how they behaved in real life or participate in relatively short and artificial laboratory-based tasks.原文说人们参与报告任务,与B对应。

  54A. By helping them pin down their unusual behaviors.

  解析:根据题干定位到倒数第三段开头These studies are just first steps.读到段尾Beyond revealing population-wide patterns, the right combination of data and analysis can also help individuals identify unique characteristics of their own behavior, including conditions that could indicate the need for some form of intervention - such as an uptick in behaviors that signal a period of depression.原文谈到帮助人们识别独特的行为特点,与B对应。

  55.B.They are increasingly focused on real-life situations.

  解析:根据题干“现在心理研究特点”定位到倒数第二段中间Today, the field is in transition, moving away from a focus on laboratory studies with undergraduate participants towards more complex, real-world situations studied with more diverse groups of people.原文说现在的研究领域已经不再局限于实验室,而更佳贴近人们生活,与B对应。


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